Trilled R's and the dawn of recorded sound in America

Editor’s note: This blog is the first part of a two-part series exploring the process of bringing early sound recordings to life for the first time in over a century.

1. Choosing a job based on compensation alone
尽管必须找到方法整合公民的观点,但始终会有缺陷。
爆破公司总指挥贾永胜告诉中国国营电视台CCTV说:像这样在市中心的大规模爆破任务,不但要保证爆破结果(精确),还要控制爆破产生的不良影响。
‘Our hope is that the Worst Passwords of the Year list will cause people to take steps to protect themselves online.’
['pri:dises?]
会。梅亚德是执政党革命制度党(PRI)的候选人。他主要的竞争对手是强硬的左翼领导人安德烈斯曼努埃尔洛佩斯奥夫拉多尔(Andrés Manuel López Obrador)——可以感召人群的激情演说家。梅亚德需要克服很多问题:在去年1月一夜间把油价上调20%、引发通胀飙升后,他必须说服选民自己仍然是可以信任的。他还必须证明自己是个有主见的人,而不仅仅是这届不受欢迎的政府的傀儡——在遏制猖獗的腐败和犯罪行为方面,这届政府极为失败。但是凭借强大的PRI拉票机器,他可能势不可挡。在墨西哥只有一轮选举的体制下,30%的选票可能就足以让他当选总统了。
And, at random, some other highlights from the list:
I'm not worried about Philly, Phoenix, or Minnesota. They're young, they're rebuilding. If they make strides, great. If not, take another high pick. The Nets are the Nets and we should talk about them in a minute.
在过去的二十年里,几起校园中毒事件引发了群众对学生心理发展及帮助的争论和关注。
Such borrowing is predicated in part on the assumption that by decontextualizing a style you also strip it of any possible negative implications: military, dynastic, what have you. It becomes an aesthetic form that exists on its own terms, as opposed to one that symbolizes all sorts of complicated societal or political convulsions.

That changed in 2008 when FirstSounds.org released a sound file created from a phonautogram of “Au Clair de la Lune” as sung on April 9, 1860. Suddenly we could hear more distantly into the past than ever before.

今年六月,一项大学和工业界的合作宣布,他们通过一种新的勘探技术在坦桑尼亚发现了一个储量巨大的氦气田。
考辛斯的交易有资格作为一枚重磅炸弹,猛龙用两笔大交易确立了他们东部冠军挑战者的位置,以及,在另外的故事情节中,西部最后一个季后赛席位的争夺将愈演愈烈。
8. Trang Islands, Thailand-The islands of Trang, a sleepy province in southeast Thailand, have remained under the radar. Wooden longtail boats can be rented to travel between the islands—and to see the endangered dugongs.
In June this year, a collaboration between universities and industry announced that it had discovered a huge reserve of helium gas in Tanzania, using a new exploration technique.
今年中国内地共有54所高校进入亚洲大学排行榜前300名。
McGowan has also hit out at Meryl Streep, saying that it is 'literally impossible' the actress knew nothing of Weinstein's sexual proclivities until last autumn.
“Someone spilled a pot of hot coffee on the candidate.”

Patrick Feaster working with the collections. Photo by Carlene Stephens.
Patrick Feaster working with the collections. Photo by Carlene Stephens.

Everyone on Wall Street, Main Street and Washington keeps forgetting the fundamentals of market cycles. Please remember: Investors Business Daily's Bill O'Neill, author of 'How to Make Money in Stocks, ' says market cycles average 3.75 years up, nine months down.
祝新年快乐,并致以良好的祝福。
Most of those surveyed for the report mentioned that positive impacts of social media include socializing with acquaintances and taking in more information.
中国的各个创新指标显现出“持续稳健的进步”,高锐表示,“没有理由认为这前进的脚步会停下来。”
It is the first biography to win the prize, although Mr Greenspan’s autobiography, The Age of Turbulence, was shortlisted in 2007, the year before the financial crisis raised serious questions about the central banker’s legacy.
'For now she wears a dab of lipstick and nail varnish.'
在经过了漫长的海选和五天紧张的半决赛之后,11位候选选手中其中一位成为了第八季英国达人秀2014年的冠军。

With the support of a Lemelson Center Fellowship and the help of curator Carlene Stephens, I carried out a study of early sound recordings at the Museum, including the Volta materials, between October and December 2011. By comparing artifacts from the Volta collection with experiments described in notebooks at the Museum and the Library of Congress, I was able to identify a number of unlabeled items. One of these—a small copper disc with a laterally modulated or “zig-zag” sound recording—turned out to have been prepared shortly before October 20, 1881, to test whether electrically depositing a layer of metal on a recorded wax disc, and then using the metal negative to stamp out copies, might work as a basis for duplication in a future recording industry. “In this way a piece of music, for instance, can be recorded once,” Tainter had speculated, “and any number of copies made from this original record, and the music reproduced from each of the copies.”

Copper negative of a recording made in October 1881. National Museum of American History, catalog number 312,119. Photo by Patrick Feaster.
Copper negative of a recording made in October 1881. National Museum of American History, catalog number 312,119. Photo by Patrick Feaster.

The October 1881 date makes this one of the oldest known American sound recordings in existence, so a question naturally arises: What’s on it? The written documentation I could find identifies the disc’s content only vaguely as “words and sounds … shouted into the mouth-piece,” but the Volta group’s notebooks reveal the general kind of test recitation they were then using, as for example:

July 4, 1881: “Several trilled R’s—then—‘Mary had a little lamb, whose fleece was white as snow, and every where that Mary went the lamb was sure to go.’—Several trilled R’s—then—‘How is that for high’—trilled R’s—and—One—two—three—four—five—six—seven—eight—nine—”

July 9, 1881: “There was a girl named O’Brian / Whose feet were like those of Orion, / To the circus she would go, / To see the great show, / And scratch the left ear of the lion. Trilled R’s. – ‘How is that for high’ more trilled R’s.”

苹果公司和中国移动之间的协议尘埃落定之后,有关苹果下一款重大产品发布的供应链传言又开始浮现。Digitimes报道称,据“上游供应链的消息”,苹果公司正酝酿在明年5月发布一款5英寸屏幕的iPhone 6“平板手机”,在明年10月发布一款大尺寸平板电脑。
Chinese manufacturers:Coming to the U.S.? Warren Buffett’s BYD says it is arriving in 2015 and Geely in 2016 but we’ve been hearing that someone was coming since at 2006. The refinement of Chinese cars is the issue. With more than 80 local automakers producing 524 different models in China, R&D money is spread too thinly to produce meaningful results.
The 2013 World Happiness Report comes on the back of a growing global movement calling for governments and policy makers to reduce their emphasis on achieving economic growth and focus on policies that can improve people's overall well-being.
单词securities 联想记忆:
从一个孩子的视角,讲述佛罗里达州一家汽车旅馆社区的生活。
There's plenty more to figure out in the coming months, plenty more to speculate about, plenty more to enjoy. Here's wishing all of our readers a safe and enjoyable holiday season, and a happy new basketball year.
He had been stranded for five hours by the time help arrived.

Charles Sumner Tainter’s drawing of the apparatus that recorded the original wax discs used in the duplication experiments of October 1881. Charles Sumner Tainter Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Photo by Patrick Feaster
Charles Sumner Tainter’s drawing of the apparatus that recorded the original wax discs used in the duplication experiments of October 1881. Charles Sumner Tainter Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Photo by Patrick Feaster

In December 2011, Dr. Carl Haber unveiled the first sounds extracted from Volta recordings using an optical scanning technology developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in collaboration with the Library of Congress. One of the items chosen for this pilot project was the copper disc from October 1881. So now, at last, we can hear, across a gulf of 130 years: Trilled R’s—one, two, three, four, five, six—trilled R’s.

2015媒体福建之旅见证宝龙多元复合发展之路

Dr. Patrick Feaster is an instructor in Folklore and Ethnomusicology at Indiana University and a Lemelson Center Fellow. This column originally appeared in Prototypethe Lemelson Center’s newsletter.