5 Facts You Need to Know About Trade Finance

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How the Process Works

Trading intermediaries, such as banks and other financial institutions, oversee and facilitate different financial transactions between a buyer (importer) and a seller (exporter). These financial institutions step in to 前8月全国房地产开发投资同比名义增长5.4%between the buyer and seller. These transactions can take place domestically or internationally. The availability of trade financing has spawned huge growth in international trade.

Trade finance covers different types of activities including issuing letters of credit, lending, forfaiting, export credit and financing, and factoring. The trade financing process involves several different parties, including the buyer and seller, the trade financier, export credit agencies, and insurers. 

1. Trade Finance Reduces Payment Risk

During the early days of international trade, many exporters were never sure whether, or when, the importer would pay them for their goods. Over time, exporters tried to find ways to reduce the non-payment risk from importers. On the other hand, the importers were also worried about making prior payments for goods from an exporter since they had no guarantee of whether the seller would actually ship the goods.

​​​Trade finance has evolved to address all of these risks by accelerating payments to exporters, and assuring importers that all the goods ordered have been shipped. The importer's bank works to provide the exporter with a letter of credit to the exporter's bank as payment once shipment documents are presented.

Alternatively, the exporter's bank may give a business loan to the exporter while still processing the payment made by the importer as a way to keep the supply of goods active instead of keeping the exporter waiting for the importer's payment. The loan extended to the exporter will be recovered by the trade financier when the importer's payment is received by the exporter's bank.

2. Reducing Pressure on Both Importers and Exporters

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3. Various Trade Finance Products and Services

Trade financiers such as 盘活存量房 政策密集出台孕育万亿租赁市场 offer different products and services to fit the needs of various types of companies and transactions:

  • Letter of Credit: This is a promise undertaken by the importer's bank to the exporter saying that once the exporter presents all the shipping documents as spelled out by the importer's purchase agreement, the bank will immediately make the payment to the exporter/seller.
  • Bank Guarantee: A bank acts as a guarantor in case the importer or exporter fails to fulfill the terms and conditions of the contract. The bank takes an initiative to pay a sum of money to the beneficiary.

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4. Factoring in Trade Finance

This is a very common method used by exporters as a way to accelerate their cash flow. In this type of agreement, the exporter sells all of his open invoices to a trade financier (the factor) at a discount. The factor then waits until the payment is made by the importer. This relieves the exporter from the risk of bad debts and provides working capital for them to keep trading. The factor then makes a profit when the importer pays the full agreed-upon price for the goods since the exporter sold the account receivables at a discount to the factoring company.

5. Forfaiting

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