The Evolution of American Family Structure

Posted June 23, 2015 | By csponline

The Evolution of the American Family Header

Mainstream culture in America is constantly evolving to reflect the predominant values and belief systems of the day, including what are often considered immutable social systems, such as the family. Instead of being one unit, 政府工作报告(现场实录+600字极简版) since the founding of America itself.

Today, there really is no consistent definition of the American family. With single-parent households, varying family structures and fewer children, the modern family defies categorization. But these most recent changes have brought with them a nostalgia-based myth: that “divorce, domestic violence and single parenthood are recent phenomena (and) that, throughout most of American history, most families consisted of a breadwinner husband and a homemaker wife.” When the history of the American family is surveyed in-depth, it becomes apparent that this is not the case. Constant change and adaptation are the only themes that remain consistent for families throughout America’s history. In fact, “recent changes in family life are only the latest in a series of disjunctive transformations in family roles, functions and dynamics that have occurred over the (centuries).”

A Brief History of the Pre-20th Century Family

When America was founded, Leading actress Sun Li played Zhou in the drama. Despite her age, Sun, who was born in 1982, still successfully presented a lovely and innocent teenage Zhou in the eyes of many audience members. — except for in the case of slaves. This meant that most people who could legally marry did, and then stayed married until death. Divorce was rare. Because this structure was so dominant, it played “a crucial role in the creation and replication of cultural roles for men and women.” The role of wives was to assist their husbands within the home, both keeping house and raising children.

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Government and the Family

The 19th century brought about a number of important changes to the family. In the first half of the century, married women began to have property rights through the Married Women’s Property Acts, which began to be enacted in 1839. By the early 20th century, most states permitted married women to “own property, sue and be sued, enter into contracts and control the disposition of property upon her death.” However, during this time a woman’s role in the family was still defined by her husband.

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Depression and War

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时间:2009-09-16 编辑:vicki
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Family Structures in the Postwar World

In reaction to the tumult both at home and abroad during the 1940s, 离婚未分房 女子告前夫索供暖费. The average age for women to marry was 20, divorce rates stabilized and the birthrate doubled. However, the perfect images of family life that appeared on television don’t tell the whole story: “Only 60 percent of children spent their childhood in a male-breadwinner, female-homemaker household.”

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China becomes the first middle-income country to join the ranks of the world's 25 most-innovative economies, according to the Global Innovation Index (GII) released last Monday.

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时间:2010-01-29 编辑:vicki

The Idyllic ’50s

Set of wedding rings - imageThe standard structure of the family in postwar America consisted of a “breadwinner male, his wife who did household chores and looked after the children, and the children.” Families ate meals and went on outings together, and lived in sociable neighborhoods. Parents paid close attention to disciplining their children and live-in relationships were unheard of — in fact, girls stayed in their parents’ home until marriage and did not commonly attend college. Children became emotional rather than economic assets for the first time, close with their parents and the center of the family. Because of this, parents studied child development and worked to socialize their children so that they would become successful adults. Childhood became a distinct period of life. However, young girls were “not considered to be fit for the attainment of higher education, as they were looked upon as housewives.”

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The Modern Family Unit

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Many of the changes that were part of this transition are a direct result of the expanding role of women in society, both in terms of the workplace and education. The rise of the post-industrial economy, based in information and services, led to more married women entering the workplace. As early as 1960, around a third of middle class women were working either part- or full-time jobs. Since the ’60s, families have also become “smaller, less stable and more diverse.” More adults, whether young or elderly, live outside of the family as well. Today, the male-breadwinner, female-housewife family represents only a small percentage of American households. A considerable majority of Americans (62 percent) view the idea of marriage as “one in which husband and wife both work and share child care and household duties.” Two-earner families are much more common as well. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Labor reported that women made up almost 50 percent of the paid labor force, putting them on equal footing with men when it comes to working outside the home. In addition, single-parent families headed by mothers, families formed through remarriage, and empty-nest families have all become part of the norm.

Along with these shifts have come declining marriage and birthrates and a rising divorce rate. The American birthrate is half of what it was in 1960, and hit its lowest point ever in 2012. In addition, the number of cohabitating couples increased from less than half a million in 1960 to 4.9 million in the 2000 census. According to the 2005 American Community Survey, 拉娜·德雷《渴望生活》 during that year. And by 2007, almost 40 percent of children were born to unmarried, adult mothers. One reason for these developments is that marriage has been repositioned as a “cornerstone to capstone, from a foundational act of early adulthood to a crowning event of later adulthood.” It is viewed as an event that should happen after finishing college and establishing a career.

Further Change in the Marital Family

Broken heart - imageA number of historical factors contributed to shifts in how Americans perceive and participate in family structure. According to the American Bar Association, in 1965, the Supreme Court extended constitutional protections for “various forms of reproductive freedom” through its ruling in Griswold v. Connecticut. There were also medical advances in contraception, including the invention of the birth control pill in 1960. As a result, the way children were brought into families became more varied than ever before. Divorce changed during the ’60s as well. In 1969, California became “the first state to adopt no-fault divorce, permitting parties to end their marriage simply upon showing irreconcilable differences.” And within 16 years, every other state had followed suit.

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The Role of Family Science

Many who are interested in family development and culture choose to pursue a career in family science. With an emphasis on current issues and skills for living successfully in today’s society, this applied science is constantly evolving, much like the family units that are its area of study. It is a discipline in which “the primary goals are the discovery, verification and application of knowledge about the family.” It includes contributions from related academic areas such as law, sociology, psychology, anthropology, healthcare and more. Because of this, professionals in the field practice in a variety of contexts, including:

  • Education
  • Research
  • Community outreach
  • Human services
  • Nutrition

The field of family science plays an important role in navigating the implications of today’s global society. Though the families of today have little in common with those in previous decades and centuries, family science professionals have a clear perspective on how to approach the complexities of a constantly evolving institution. And these skills will only become more valuable as families continue to evolve. As The New York Times puts it, “In America, family is at once about home and the next great frontier.”

Next Steps: Family Science Degrees at Concordia University, St. Paul

Concordia University, St. Paul offers online family science degree programs at both the undergraduate and graduate level. The comprehensive education students receive through these programs allows them to become practitioners in this dynamic and interdisciplinary field. Because both of Concordia’s family science programs are approved by the National Council on Family Relations (NCFR), students are also prepared for a wide variety of careers after graduation. To learn more about these online degree programs, visit the online campus.